A major innovation in this project will be the conduct of systematic reviews of barriers to the implementation of organised screening programmes acting at the health system (financing, delivery of care, use of evidence, etc.) and service (training, incentives, payment systems, cultural beliefs) levels, using the same approach as we used in two recent reviews of barriers to effective hypertension management. A further innovation will be the development of a barrier assessment tool that can be applied in each participating country during workshop 3 to identify barriers to optimal management of organised screening that exist. The impact of these barriers will be assessed in the exemplar countries and potentially feasible solutions will be assessed using stakeholder analysis. In close interaction with WP 5 the long-term impact on benefits and harms of cancer screening of possible changes will be quantified.